Biography of Albert Einstein

Biography of Albert Einstein

Biography of Albert Einstein

Alexis Kushnir, Journalist

Albert Einstein was a theoretical physicist who was known to be one of the greatest physicists of all time. He is known for developing the theory of relativity, he also made important contributions to the development of the theory of quantum mechanics. 


Albert Einstein was born on March 14, 1879 in Ulm, Germany. His parents were Herman Einstein, a salesman engineer and Pauline Koch. Albert went to a Catholic elementary school in Munich, then transferred to Luitpold Gymnasium (now known as Albert Einstein Gymnasium). 


In search of business, the family moved to two places in Italy, first Milan and then Pavia. When the family moved to Pavia, Einstein stayed behind to finish his studies. He didn’t believe in the school system and resented to school´s regimen and teaching methods. At the end of 1894, he joined his family back in Italy. 


At 12 years old, Einstein taught himself algebra and geometry over a single summer. He also taught himself calculus at this age. In 1895, Einstein took the entrance exams for the Swiss Federal polytechnic school in Zurich. He failed at the general exam, but he excelled in physics and mathematics. He renounced his citizenship in the German Kingdom of Wurttemberg to get away from military service. At 17, he enrolled in a four-year mathematics and physics teaching diploma program at the Federal polytechnic school.


In 1900, Einstein graduated and acquired Swiss citizenship in 1901, but was not conscripted for medical reasons. He secured a job at Bern at the Swiss Patent Office as an assistant examiner. In 1905, Einstein received a PhD by the University of Zurich.


Einstein published 4 papers on photoelectric effect, Brownian motion, special relativity, and the equivalence of mass and energy. This would later bring him into the academic world at age 26. In 1908, he was recognized and was appointed lecturer at the University of Bern, then in 1909, he was appointed associate professor. 


In April 1911, Einstein became a full professor at the German Charles-Ferdinand University in Prague. While he was there, he wrote 11 scientific works. They were based on radiation mathematics and quantum theory of solids. From 1912-1914, he was a professor of theoretical physics at the ETH Zurich.


On July 3, 1913, he became a member of the Prussian Academy of Sciences in Berlin. In 1916, he was elected president of the German Physical Society. Using his new theory of relativity, the prediction was confirmed by Sir Aruthur Eddington during the solar eclipse in 1919, which was put on international media. In 1920, he became a Forgein Member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences. He was awarded the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics. He also received the Copley Medal from the Royal Society in 1925. 


On April 17, 1955, Einstein went through internal bleeding caused by abdominal aortic aneurysm. He refused surgery, but died in Princeton Hospital at age 76.  

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